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中国产东亚类群马口鱼类分类探讨(未完待续,欢迎参与讨论)

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魔鬼鱼 发表于 2009-8-18 22:48 | 显示全部楼层 来自 黑龙江哈尔滨

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<p>太专业了。。</p>
xxxg00w0 发表于 2009-8-18 19:24 | 显示全部楼层 来自 浙江杭州

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<p>小黑你太牛X了~快更新快更新~!</p>
yhlboy 发表于 2009-8-18 21:30 | 显示全部楼层 来自 辽宁大连

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<div class="msgheader">QUOTE:</div><div class="msgborder"><b>以下是引用<i>黑鲷</i>在2009-8-18 21:05:09的发言:</b><br/>
<p>这个问题尚有疑问,呵呵,Y大果然注意到了,我用的宽鳍鱲<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco platypus</span></i>的图片均来自日本,至少现在个人认为所谓“南方斑块种”并非是宽鳍鱲<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco platypus</span></i>了。<font color="#ff0000">不过,“条纹种”很明显已经确定了了,就是<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Opsariichthys</span></i><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>(</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco</span></i><span>)evolans,希望大家能还它们一个正名,别再叫它们“宽鳍鱲条纹种”了,记住它们的名字——长鳍(马口)鱲</span></font></p>
<div align="right"><font color="#000066">[此贴子已经被作者于2009-8-18 21:05:54编辑过]</font></div></div>
<p>呵呵,ok,小黑专这样说我便放心了,就怕你把南方的斑块种也归类到日本<span lang="EN-US"><em>Zacco platypus,</em>这样我是不认同的,就算是分子做出一样的结果,我也不认同,搞不好这是三个不同的种,并认为东北区产的鱲系日本的<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco platypus</span></i>,并不认为其是入侵到我国北方内陆地区的,而是一个种的自然分化。无论是历史的上溯还是地理的区系,都证明<span lang="EN-US"><em>Zacco platypus</em></span>不是入侵物种。对小黑专的宽鳍鱲条纹型系一独立种说个人持力挺态度,很赞同。</span></p>
<p><span lang="EN-US">至于斑块种,个人倾向其是第三个种,也待黑鲷兄往后的阐述与论证。</span></p>
<p><span lang="EN-US">上一张捕捉与辽宁的<span lang="EN-US"><em>Zacco platypus,与日本<span lang="EN-US">Zacco platypus</span></em>一般无二,但与斑块种差异明显。</span></span></p>
<p><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-US"></span></span>&nbsp;</p>
<p></p>
<p><br/>&nbsp;</p><br/>
[此贴子已经被作者于2009-8-18 21:42:59编辑过]

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双鱼座,一生爱鱼。
 楼主| 黑鲷 发表于 2009-8-19 00:53 | 显示全部楼层 来自 浙江杭州

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第三章:鱲属?马口鱼属?

&nbsp;
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.1pt"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>第三章:鱲属?马口鱼属?</span><span lang="EN-US"><?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.1pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21.75pt"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>上文中提到了,</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco evolans</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>被划入了</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Opsariichthys</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>马口鱼属,究竟依据何在呢?其又并非有马口鱼那样明显的吻端</span><span lang="EN-US">W</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>形嵌合,为何成为了“长鳍马口鱼”。先把这个疑问放一放,我们来追溯一下历史,看看</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>属是如何建立的。</span><span lang="EN-US">Zacco</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>这个词,无论如何,在拉丁文或者希腊文中都是无法查到其得原意的,若有不信邪的朋友,可以去试试看。也许会有人告诉我,北欧貌似有</span><span lang="EN-US">Zacco</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>品牌,意大利还有人姓</span><span lang="EN-US">Zacco</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>,那么我想问的是,建立</span><span lang="EN-US">Zacco</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>属的美国学者</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">Jordan</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>(也就是长鳍鱲的命名人)怎么会在百年以前,拿这样的词来作为东亚的鱼类的属名?听起来是不是很让人匪夷所思?实际上,</span><span lang="EN-US">Zacco</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>的真正的由来,实际上更加令人无语……</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>话说某一天,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">Jordan</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>在溪边散步,看到了一个钓鱼人钓了不少的小鱼,仔细看看有宽鳍鱲,有</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>矛鱊……一到日本,就看到那么多新鲜的小玩意,他</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>自然</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>看得入迷了,钓鱼人钓上啥都要问个清楚。小鱼闹窝,一个金发碧眼的老外又问东问西的问个不停,钓鱼人觉得烦了,就指着钓上来的鱼说:“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">Zako</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>!</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">Zako</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>!(杂鱼!)”心想也许这样就能应付一下这个爱问的家伙。没错,后来这个“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">Zako</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>”,就被</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">Jordan</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>音译为了</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">Zacco</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>,也就是鱲属。在一篇针对日产鲤科鱼类的论注中,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">Jordan</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>给出了解释,原来在他的印象中,钓鱼人口中的“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">Zako</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>”便是对一般溪鱼的通称,尤其是矛鱊【原文:“</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">Zako</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">a Japanese name for river minnows</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">notably for</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">Acheilognathus lanceolata</span></i><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"> </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>(现名</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">Tanakia lanceolata</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>)】。把称呼鰟鮍的名字给扣到鱲头上,您说无厘头不无厘头?</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">Zacco</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>一词的由来清楚了,那为什么要建立</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacc</span></i><span lang="EN-US">o</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>属将</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Opsariichthys</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>属中的一些物种划分出来呢?主要依据便是口的形状。他觉得</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Opsariichthys uncirostris</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>真马口鱼的嘴看起来实在是太奇特了!口裂巨大,上下吻凹凸镶嵌,与其他当时所知的</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Opsariichthys</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>鱼类的平直口裂差别太大了,于是他就将宽鳍鱲,谈氏鱲,粗首鱲,以及他发表的新种长鳍鱲一同划入了这个新属,并且确定了</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco platypus</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>宽鳍鱲为本属的模式。</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>回到之前的话题,为何要将</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco evolans</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>在恢复的同时划归到</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Opsariichthys</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>中去呢?我们来看看台湾学者陈义雄等的研究成果:</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>图三:摘自</span><span lang="EN-US"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Times new=" New? Roman?; mso-bidi-language: ZH-CN; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: 1.0pt; mso-font-kerning: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 宋体? mso-fareast-font-family: AR-SA;><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Times new=" New? Roman?; mso-bidi-language: ZH-CN; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: 1.0pt; mso-font-kerning: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 宋体? mso-fareast-font-family: AR-SA;>The taxonomy and phylogeny of <i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Candidia</i> (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Taiwan, with description of a new genus</span></span></span></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></b>&nbsp;</p>
<p></p>
<p>&nbsp; </p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN-LEFT: -17.95pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 120%; TEXT-ALIGN: left; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-pagination: widow-orphan; mso-para-margin-left: -1.71gd; mso-outline-level: 4" align="left"><span style="LINE-HEIGHT: 120%; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt?>&nbsp; </p>
<p align="left">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 通过系统发育树可以很清楚的看到从系统发育分类的角度来看,<i>Opsariichthys evolans</i>长鳍鱲与<i>Opsariichthys uncirostris</i>真马口鱼,马口鱼<i>Opsariichthys bidens</i>的亲缘关系更近,同样,粗首鱲也是如此,所以都从<i>Zacco</i>属划归到了<i>Opsariichthys</i>属。现在Fishbase所承认的<i>Zacco</i>属物种,除了此属的模式物种<i>Zacco platypu</i>外,只剩下了两个与中国大陆密切相关的物种——仅仅分布于中国四川省的濒危鱼种<i>Zacco chengtui</i>成都鱲与前中科院水生所所长陈宜瑜先生所发表的物种<i>Zacco taiwanensis</i>台湾鱲。前者笔者见到过实物照,其与其它东亚马口鱼类的明显差异显示了这个种的有效性,而<i>Zacco taiwanensis</i>台湾鱲的有效性已经被台湾学者所否定,认为是<i>Opsariichthys pachycephalus</i>粗首鱲的同物异名,推测是当年陈先生等检视标本数量不足,误将小头型个体的<i>Opsariichthys pachycephalus</i>作为新种所发表。也就是说,除去了濒危少有研究资料的<i>Zacco chengtui</i>成都鱲之外,<i>Zacco</i>属仅仅就只剩下了孤苦伶仃的<i>Zacco platypus</i>宽鳍鱲了。回首当年,<i>Zacco</i>属的建立是否太主观,太武断了一点?当初建立此属的标准如今已经完全不适用了。或许,<i>Zacco</i>这个本是用来指代鰟鮍的名字,从来就不该用在鱲身上……笔者预言,<i>Zacco</i>这个属名,迟早有一天会消失在茫茫鱼类分类学的海洋中……</p>
<p align="left">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 所以,笔者的观点是:<i>Zacco</i>应该被取消,<i>Opsariichthys</i>的中文名可以重新被确定为鱲属,那原本划分至<i>Zacco</i>的鱲都可以沿用原来的中文名,马口鱼改称马口鱲,哈哈,不过这些想法也许都只是我一厢情愿永远都无法实现……</p></span>
[此贴子已经被作者于2009-8-19 20:29:54编辑过]

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xxxg00w0 发表于 2009-8-18 23:52 | 显示全部楼层 来自 浙江杭州

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<p>我还等更新呢...</p>
母狮 发表于 2009-8-19 00:02 | 显示全部楼层 来自 四川成都

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<p>太专业了,听天书一样!不过支持一把!不过有机会,谁能一样送我一条,我请吃一周火锅!</p>
 楼主| 黑鲷 发表于 2009-8-18 23:01 | 显示全部楼层 来自 浙江杭州

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<div class="msgheader">QUOTE:</div><div class="msgborder"><b>以下是引用<i>鸟人</i>在2009-8-18 22:45:33的发言:</b><br/>长鳍马口鱲与马口鱼有为何都有马口二字呢? </div>
<p>鸟总监没仔细看文吧,“长鳍鱲”在恢复的同时被划入了<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: 'Times New="New"  Roman'; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">Opsariichthys</span></i>马口鱼属。</p>
 楼主| 黑鲷 发表于 2009-8-18 23:02 | 显示全部楼层 来自 浙江杭州

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<div class="msgheader">QUOTE:</div><div class="msgborder"><b>以下是引用<i>鸟人</i>在2009-8-18 22:46:35的发言:</b><br/>黑专,相信很多人都想看看非洲与南亚产的鱲类鱼之图片<img title="dvubb" alt="图片点击可在新窗口打开查看" src="http://www.cqh2o.com/images/emot/em63.gif" align="middle" border="0"/> </div>
<p>哈哈,低线鱲类群嘛,和东亚的马口鱼类群是否同源还很难说呢,而且这方面,本人也实在是惭愧,了解的不够多。。。</p>
 楼主| 黑鲷 发表于 2009-8-18 18:39 | 显示全部楼层 来自 浙江杭州

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第一章:何谓东亚类群马口鱼类?其中到底有哪些种类?

&nbsp;
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.1pt"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">第一章:何谓东亚类群马口鱼类?其中到底有哪些种类?</span><span lang="EN-US"><?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.1pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21.75pt"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">首先,我们来以最广泛的视角审视一番,到马口鱼类群的定义是什么。简单的说,马口鱼类是一群隶属于</span><span lang="EN-US">Danioninae</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">亚科的类群,小型鱼类,身体多狭长,适应急流生活,喜爱栖息于溪流等流水流域的上层,通常雄鱼在繁殖季节有着明显的婚姻色,头部与身体上也会出明显的角质突起,也就是所谓的“追星”或“珠星”,这类鱼类主要分布于两个大洲——非洲与亚洲,通过骨骼结构上的差异结合分布地,我们把它们分为两个类群:非洲类群与东亚类群。</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.1pt"><span lang="EN-US"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">非洲类群有七八个不同的属,主要分布于非洲大陆,印度,东南亚,代表属为</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Barilius</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">(低线鱲属)。我国的云南省也有这一类群的分布,即</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Barilius</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">与</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Raiamas</span></i><span lang="EN-US">(</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">长嘴鱲属</span><span lang="EN-US">)</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">。东亚类群的代表鱼类便是大名鼎鼎的</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Opsariichthys</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">,也就是马口鱼了。鱼类分类学上通常在它们的属名后头加“</span><span lang="EN-US">-ine</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">”来表示一个类群,即为</span><span lang="EN-US">Bariliine</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">(非洲类群,低线鱲类群)与</span><span lang="EN-US">Opsariichthine</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">(东亚类群,马口鱼类群)。</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.1pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21.75pt"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">有关这两个类群是否在系统发育上同源,是否可以归为一类,在学术界上争议颇多,在这里其实也没必要多加赘述了,我们要探讨的,仅仅是它俩中的</span><span lang="EN-US">Opsariichthine</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">的分类。</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.1pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21.75pt"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">接着,我们来看看现有的</span><span lang="EN-US">Opsariichthine</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">主要包括哪几个属。</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.1pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21.75pt"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">以</span><span lang="EN-US">fishbase</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">上查阅的资料来看,有以下几个属:</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">1.<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Opsariichthys</i></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.1pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21.75pt"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">马口鱼属,主要特征就是口裂大,正面观吻端有</span><span lang="EN-US">W</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">形的嵌合,性成熟雄鱼有垂直于体侧的条纹或斑块(横纹)。模式种为</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Opsariichthys uncirostris</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">(真马口鱼)</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">2<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">.Zacco</i></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN-LEFT: 0.1pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21.75pt"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">鱲属,口裂平直,性成熟雄鱼有垂直于体侧的条纹或斑块(横纹)。模式种为</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco platypus</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">(宽鳍鱲)</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">3.<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">arazacco</i></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">异鱲属,从腹鳍基部到肛门具腹棱,体侧具有不规则的垂直斑纹密集构成的纵带。模式种为</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">arazacco spilurus</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" Roman?? ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? new="New">(异鱲)</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">4.<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal">Candidia</i></span><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US" style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: Arial"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: Arial; mso-hansi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">须鱲属,口角有须。体侧有一条纵带。模式种为</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Candidia barbata</span></i><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: Arial; mso-hansi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">(须鱲)。</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">5.<span class="sciname1"> Nipponocypris<o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="TEXT-INDENT: 21.75pt"><span class="sciname1"><span style="FONT-STYLE: normal; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? italic? mso-bidi-font-style: new="New">纵纹鱲属,口裂平直,无须,无腹棱,体侧花纹为纵带。模式种为</span></span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Nipponocypris temminckii</span></i><span class="sciname1"><span style="FONT-STYLE: normal; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? italic? mso-bidi-font-style: new="New">(谈氏纵纹鱲)</span></span><span class="sciname1"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-STYLE: normal; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span class="sciname1"><span style="FONT-STYLE: normal; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? italic? mso-bidi-font-style: new="New">以上属的模式种彩图见下图:</span></span><span class="sciname1"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-STYLE: normal; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span class="sciname1"><span style="FONT-STYLE: normal; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? italic? mso-bidi-font-style: new="New">图一(图片来自网络,为求鉴定尽量准确,来自模式产地所在国家地区网站)</span></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span class="sciname1"><span style="FONT-STYLE: normal; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? italic? mso-bidi-font-style: new="New"></span></span><span class="sciname1"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-STYLE: normal; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><o:p></o:p></span></span>&nbsp;</p>
<p></p>
<p>&nbsp; </p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="TEXT-INDENT: 21.75pt"><span class="sciname1"><span style="FONT-STYLE: normal; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? italic? mso-bidi-font-style: new="New">不过对于</span></span><span class="sciname1"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-STYLE: normal; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">fishbase</span></span><span class="sciname1"><span style="FONT-STYLE: normal; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" ?Times mso-hansi-font-family: Roman?; New? italic? mso-bidi-font-style: new="New">的分类系统,我个人还是有小小的意见与疑惑,待第三章,我们再来好好讨论一下。</span></span><span class="sciname1"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-STYLE: normal; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
<p><br/>&nbsp;</p>
[此贴子已经被作者于2009-8-18 18:45:09编辑过]

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 楼主| 黑鲷 发表于 2009-8-18 18:40 | 显示全部楼层 来自 浙江杭州

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第二章:宽鳍鱲?平颌鱲?长鳍鱲!

<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>第二章:宽鳍鱲?平颌鱲?长鳍鱲!</span><span lang="EN-US"><?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></span></b>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>图二:(宽鳍鱲图片来自网络)</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span class="sciname1"><span style="FONT-STYLE: normal; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-style: italic?>说到宽鳍鱲,现在的鱼友应该已经有了一个共识,就是其中包含了两个(或者以上)不同的类群。有曰之斑块种,条纹种的,有作为亚种看待的,也有看做不同个体的。实则,他们是完全不同的两个种,分别是</span></span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco platypus</span></i><span class="sciname1"><span style="FONT-STYLE: normal; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-style: italic?>宽鳍鱲</span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>也就是平颌鱲与</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Opsariichthys </span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>(</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>)</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">evolans</span></i><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>长鳍马口鱲(长鳍鱲,帆鳍鱲)。</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>有关这两种鱼的分类问题实际上已经纠缠了一百余年,其中曲折,请听我娓娓道来……</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco evolans</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>实际在</span><span lang="EN-US">1902</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>年已经由美国学者</span><span lang="EN-US">Jordan</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>与其学生</span><span lang="EN-US">Evermann</span><span style="COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: Arial; mso-hansi-font-family: Arial; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">以受赠与大英博物馆的来自台湾的标本所命名。而后,却被另一著名学者日本人大岛正满所否定。而大岛正满,却也是</span><span lang="EN-US">Jordan</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>的学生,究竟师徒之间为何会有此分歧呢?</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>根据原始记录,</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco evolans</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>在形态上与</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco platypus</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>差异并不大,比较特别的差异,就在于翼状的长胸鳍,末端大大超出了腹鳍的起点,此外,背鳍超过头长,臀鳍超过头长两倍,也是显著特征,</span><span lang="EN-US">evolans</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>在拉丁文中有飞起来的意思,大概是觉得它的鳍大得像翅膀甚至可以用来飞翔吧!而大岛正满在比较了许多采集自日本与台湾的标本后指出,</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco platypus</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>(所谓的平颌鱲,<span class="sciname1"><span style="FONT-STYLE: normal; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">宽鳍鱲,实则台湾的标本包含了</span></span></span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Opsariichthys</span></i><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>(</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>)</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">evolans</span></i><span class="sciname1"><span style="FONT-STYLE: normal; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times mso-bidi-font-style: italic?>长鳍鱲的标本,甚至在那个年代,日本的</span></span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco platypus</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>并未侵入台湾,台湾岛内,可能只有长鳍鱲存在)的胸鳍长度变化甚大,因此其分类意义有限,加上两地标本的各项可数性状差异不大,据此,他否定了</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal"><span lang="EN-US">Zacco evolans</span></i><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>这一新种的有效性。</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>但是,仔细分析大岛正满在论文中对两地标本的各项记录后可以看出,其实两者间在胸鳍的长度上还是有所不同的:台湾的标本,只要体长超过了</span><span lang="EN-US">10cm</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>的个体,其胸鳍长度几乎都达到或超过了腹鳍的起点,而日本产的标本,胸鳍达到腹鳍起点,体长要达到</span><span lang="EN-US">15cm</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>左右才有可能,超过腹鳍起点的,几乎没有……</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>而大家也很清楚,幼鱼、母鱼和未完全发情的雄鱼,鳍条的延长有限,</span><span lang="EN-US">Jordan</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>所依据描述新种的标本,很明显是发情了的长鳍鱲雄鱼,所以他据此描述新种的许多特征,都要在此一发育至顶点的雄鱼身上,才完全表达出来。</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>或许这种体型上的测量差异,与产地环境,气候,甚至种群的趋向进化上,会产生一定的差异,但是性成熟所产生的其他变化,包括婚姻色,和追星,两者都截然不同,这些值得讨论的特征,却未在大岛正满的论文中出现。那么明眼人一瞧那“斑块种”和“条纹种”的发情雄鱼,一眼就可以区分了啊,无论是颜色还是体侧的花纹,都相差甚远!甚至在幼鱼期,都可以用肉眼通过观察色斑来轻松辨别两种所谓的“宽鳍鱲”,为什么大名鼎鼎的鱼类学家反而没有能通过观察做到呢?</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>其实,这也不能完全怪他们。这与经典鱼类分类所使用的鉴定依据——浸制标本无法体现鲜活鱼体的特征有关系,浸泡过的标本失去了鱼只原有的色泽,体色上的差异不明显了,自然也难以以此作为分类依据(不过要说明的是,分类中一般不以体色作为分类依据的原因主要还是其得变异过大)。当然,也可以看出他们多都是不出野外,闭门造车的专家,若大岛正满能同时获得两种不同的发情雄鱼做比较,相信他也会支持老师</span><span lang="EN-US">Jordan</span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>的观点了,长鳍鱲也不会等了百年,才得到正名了</span><span lang="EN-US">!</span></p><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times new=" new="New" New? Roman?; mso-hansi-font-family: ?Times Roman??>
<p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 现在,fishbase站中已经将<em>Opsariichthys evolans </em>(Jordan &amp; Evermann, 1902)作为有效种了,但是至于为何要把原发表为为<i>Zacco evolan</i>的鱼类重新划入<i>Opsariichthys</i>马口鱼属,以及我个人对fishbase所采纳的的分类系统的疑议,下章再议。</p>
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[此贴子已经被作者于2009-8-19 20:26:02编辑过]

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